Operation Bugle (ii)

This was an Allied air offensive to interdict communications both within the Ruhr and between the Ruhr and the rest of Germany in preparation for the advance of the Allied 21st Army Group (Canadian 1st, British 2nd and US 9th Armies) under Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery from the line of the Maas river from 7 February 1945 (January/February 1945).

The implementation of ‘Bugle’ did much to ensure that most of General Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel’s (from 8 March Generaloberst Josef Harpe’s) 5th Panzerarmee and General Gustav-Adolf von Zangen’s 15th Army of Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model’s Heeresgruppe ‘B’ were trapped in the Ruhr when the leading echelons of Lieutenant General Courtney H. Hodges’s US 1st Army of General Omar N. Bradley’s US 12th Army Group and of Lieutenant General William H. Simpson’s US 9th Army met at Lippstadt at the beginning of April 1945.