Operation Kalender-Aktion

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This was a German programme to withdraw middle- and lower-ranking elements of industrial management for the reinforcement of front-line formations in an emergency such as an Allied landing in France or a Soviet breakthrough on the Eastern Front (1943/8 May 1945).

Within this programme, at the end of 1943 some 210,000 non-essential management executives had been identified and redeployed into the German armed forces.