Operation Sunshine, Moonlight, Starlight & Lamplight

'Sunshine' was a British quartet of operations by the Special Operations Executive in German-occupied Norway to protect the power stations in Telemark and Buskerud, together with the Norsk Hydro industries in Rjukan and Notodden against any German attempt to initiate a scorched-earth policy (5 October 1944/8 May 1945).

These power stations provided 60% of the power in the Østlandet region of German-occupied eastern Norway. Led by Leif Tronstad, who had been the central figure in the plans and preparations to disrupt heavy water production at Vemork, the party comprised Norman Lind, Jens Poulsson, Herluf Nygaard, Arne Kjelstrup, L. Brønn, E. Hagen, Claus Helberg and G. Syverstad. The plan was divided into three sections, namely 'Moonlight' with Rjukan at its core, 'Starlight' in the Numedal to the north-east of Rjukan, and 'Lamplight' in the area around Notodden. Poulsson led 'Moonlight' with Helberg as the radio operator, Kjelstrup led 'Starlight', and 'Lamplight' was the responsibility of Nygaard. A British officer of Norwegian parentage, Lind acted as liaison officer. Einar Skinnerland became the radio operator at Tronstad’s headquarters.

The whole undertaking was in many ways a re-forming of the 'Gunnerside' team. The main party was delivered by air on 5 October. Radio contact was soon established with the UK, and the operation worked closely with the management of Norsk Hydro and the local Milorg armed military resistance organisation, and through the latter with the Milorg central leadership in Oslo. Training was undertaken and a series of preparations was made to protect these sites over the coming months. On 11 March, Tronstad was killed and Poulsson took over the leadership of the operation. On 9 May 1945 'Sunshine' was ordered to mobilise. The district was brought under its control and the designated targets were protected. Norwegian SS soldiers were imprisoned and Nazis arrested in collaboration with the local police.