Operation Turbinate

'Turbinate' was a British element of a multi-part deception operation, including 'Elephant' and 'Pounce', to reinforce in German minds the impression that the imminent 'Veritable' offensive by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery’s Anglo-Canadian 21st Army Group would be launched to the north into the Netherlands, in order to overrun the V-2 ballistic missile sites from which London was being attacked, and not to the east into Germany (January 1945).

The undertaking was known as 'Turbinate II' as the earlier and generally similar 'Turbinate' (then known as 'Turbinate I') had been cancelled after the Germans' launch of 'Wacht am Rhein' had forced Montgomery to postpone 'Veritable'.