Operation München (iii)

Munich

This was the German retreat to the line of the Arno river in the Tuscany region of central Italy (June 1944).

Undertaken with that farther to the east by Generaloberst Heinrich-Gottfried von Vietinghoff-Scheel’s 10th Army, this retreat saw General Joachim Lemelsen’s 14th Army pull back to the north, under pressure from Lieutenant General Sir Oliver Leese’s British 8th Army and Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark’s US 5th Army in the aftermath of the 'Diadem' offensive and the Allied occupation of Rome, from the part of the ‘Albert-Stellung’ defences to the south-west of Lake Trasimeno, via fall-back positions in front of Siena and Arezzo, to the ‘Arno-Linie’ defences.