Operation Schwarz (iii)

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This was the German alternative designation for the operation, initially planned as 'Student' (ii), for the seizure of Rome and the protection of Benito Mussolini, the Italian Fascist leader (27 July 1943/June 1944).

The operation was planned for implementation as and when the Allied threat to Rome became appreciable, and was to be undertaken by General Kurt Student, commander of the XI Fliegerkorps using Generalleutnant Fritz-Hubert Gräser’s 3rd Panzergrenadierdivision and Generalleutnant Bernhard Ramcke’s 2nd Fallschirmjägerdivision.